천태종에서 세운 팔교 (八敎)인 화엄시 (華嚴時)에서부터 법화열반시 (法華涅槃時)까시 (五時)에서 설한 화법사교 (化法四敎)인 삼장교 (三藏敎), 통교 (通敎), 별교( 別敎), 원교 (圓敎)와 화의사교 (化儀四敎)인 돈교 (頓敎), 점교 (漸敎), 비밀교 (秘密敎), 부정교 (不定敎)를 말함
The eight Tientai classifications of Buddha's teaching from the Avatamsaka to the Lotus and Nirvana Sutras, divided into the two sections: Four kinds of teaching of the content of the truth according to the capacity of Buddha's disciples; and four modes of instructions: 1) The Tripitaka or Hinayana teaching. 2) The intermediate teaching which contained Hinayana and Mahayana doctrines. 3) The differentiated or separate bodhisattva teaching, definitely Mahayana. 4) The final, perfect, and universal teaching as preached in the Lotus and Nirvana Sutras. 5) The direct or sudden enlightenment teaching without reserve of the whole truth. 6) The gradual or graduated enlightenment teaching. 7) The esoteric teaching, only understood by special members of the assembly. 8) The general or intermediate teaching, from which each hearer would derive benefit according to his interpretation.