여덟 가지 선정 (禪定)의 방해요소. 곧 우 (憂), 희 (喜), 고 (苦), 락 (樂), 심 (尋), 사 (伺), 출식 (出息), 입식 (入息)을 말함. 화 (火), 수 (水), 풍 (風)의 삼재 (三災)를 외환 (外患)이라 하고, 이들 여덟 가지를 내환 (內患)이라 말함
Eight calamities: Eight obstacles to meditation. They are dejection, happiness, pain, joy, investigation of recent harsh karmic actions, investigation of imperceptible karmic actions of the former lives, exhalation, and inhalation. These are called internal obstacles. Three other calamities of fire, water, and wind are called the external calamities or obstacles.